Southwestern Fusion Haute Cuisine Joins L.A. Food Truck Scene

Southwestern Fusion Haute Cuisine Joins L.A. Food Truck Scene

Chef Scott Persson’s In-Fusion Truck offers gourmet food at fast-food prices

Chef-to-the-stars Scott Persson is joining the ranks of other celebrity chefs like Andrew Zimmern, who recently rolled out AZ Canteen, and will be hitting the streets of Los Angeles with his own food truck, In-Fusion Truck, in October.

Scott Persson, who was the personal chef to Elton John, Celine Dion, and former President Jimmy Carter, and his wife Deeanne Persson, in partnership with Benny Doro, a Wall Street banker, and Robin Cremeens of LLS Management INC., will be cooking Southwestern fusion cuisine in his new mobile venture.

In-Fusion Truck features inexpensive meals, such as In Fusionada (slow-cooked Adobo pork topped with avocado crema), bloody mary tacos, and In Salada (a baby spinach and quinoa salad with oaxeca cheese and shimeji mushrooms).

Nikki Maniscalco is a Junior Writer at The Daily Meal. Folow her on Twitter @NikkiMarie2116

  • 1 Fono
  • 2 Historio
  • 3 HalaloRegionaj kuirartoj
    • 5.1 Sudokcidenta regiono
    • 5.2 Nordorienta regiono
    • 5.3 Centra regiono
    • 5.4 Orienta regiono
    • 5.5 Sudorienta regiono
    • 10.1 Ĉefplado
    • 10.2 Ĉatnio
    • 10.3 Desertoj
    • 10.4 Trinkaĵoj

    Rizo estas la ĉefbazmanĝaĵo de bangladeŝaj homoj kaj ĝi estas servita kun larĝa gamo de kuiras. Noblegaj bangladeŝaj pladoj elmontras fortajn aromajn gustojn kaj ofte inkludas ovojn, terpomojn, tomatojn kaj melongenojn. Gamo da spicoj kaj herboj, kune kun mustardoleo kaj hinda butero, estas uzitaj en bangladeŝa kuirado. La ĉefkonduktilo panumas estas naano, potroto, roti, bakarkhani kaj luki. Legomstufaĵo estas la dua plej grava bazmanĝaĵo kiu estas servita kun rice/porota/luchi. Fiŝo estas bazvaro en bangladeŝa kuirarto, aparte dolĉakva fiŝo, kiu estas karakterizaĵo de la gastronomio de la lando. Gravaj fiŝaj pladoj inkluzivas ilish ( hilsa ), pabdan ( buterfiŝo), rui ( rohu), pikdolorcindron ( panga anariko), kitol ( klaŭnotranĉilfiŝo), magur ( promenigante anarikon), bhetki ( baramundi) kaj tilapian. Viandkonsumo inkludas bovaĵon, ŝafidon, cervoviandon, kokidon, anason, kolombidon kaj koel. Legompladoj, aŭ pistis ( bhorta), bolis ( sabji), aŭ foli-bazita ( sag ), estas vaste servitaj. Marmanĝaĵo kiel ekzemple omaroj kaj salikokoj ankaŭ estas ofte ĝenerala.

    Frandaĵa pulao estas servita dum festenoj kaj festivaloj. Malsamaj specoj de bengala biriani kaj pulao inkludas Kachi (ŝafaĵo), Tehari (bovaĵo), Ilish kaj Murg (kokido). Malsamaj specoj de kabab'oj inkludas shikh, reshmi, Ŝaŝlikon, tikkan kaj shami. La lando estas hejmo al enorma vico da bengalaj desertoj kaj dolĉaĵoj, intervalante de tut-frititaj aŭ vaporitaj rizkukoj ( pitha ) ĝis halwa kaj dolĉaĵoj faritaj de fruktoj kaj dolĉigitan fromaĝon. Teo estas vaste konsumita kiel la nacia trinkaĵo kaj ofertita al gastoj kiel gesto de bonvenigo. Popularaj etmanĝaĵoj inkludas Samosojn, pakorajn, jhalmuri (senspira rizo miksita kun diversaj spicoj), pithan (rizkukoj), kaj bulkon. La phuchka kaj " chotpoti " estas gravaj stratmanĝaĵoj. La Chittagong Montetaj Terpecoj en sudorienta Bangladeŝa trajta bambupafkuirarto. Bangladeŝo ankaŭ estas la kvina plej granda produktanto de la monda de tropikaj fruktoj.



    Grains have been one of the most important staples to the Korean diet. Early myths of the foundations of various kingdoms in Korea center on grains. One foundation myth relates to Jumong, who received barley seeds from two doves sent by his mother after establishing the kingdom of Goguryeo. [ 4 ] Yet another myth speaks of the three founding deities of Jeju Island, who were to be wed to the three princesses of Tamna the deities brought seeds of five grains which were the first seeds planted, which in turn became the first instance of farming. [ 5 ]

    During the pre-modern era, grains such as barley and millet were the main staples and were supplemented by wheat, sorghum, and buckwheat. Rice is not an indigenous crop to Korea, and millet was likely the preferred grain before rice was cultivated. Rice became the grain of choice during the Three Kingdoms period, particularly in the kingdoms of Silla and Baekje in the southern regions of the peninsula. Rice was such an important commodity in Silla that it was used to pay taxes. The Sino-Korean word for "tax" is a compound character that uses the character for the rice plant. The preference for rice escalated into the Joseon period, when new methods of cultivation and new varieties emerged that would help increase production. [ 6 ]

    As rice was prohibitively expensive when it first came to Korea, the grain likely was mixed with other grains to "stretch" the rice this is still done in dishes such as boribap (rice with barley) and kongbap (rice with beans). [ 7 ] White rice, which is rice with the bran removed, has been the preferred form of rice since its introduction into the cuisine. The most traditional method of cooking the rice has been to cook it in an iron pot called a sot (솥) or musoe sot (무쇠솥). This method of rice cookery dates back at least to the Goryeo period, and these pots have even been found in tombs from the Silla period. The sot is still used today, much in the same manner as it was in the past centuries. [ 8 ]

    Rice is used to make a number of items, outside of the traditional bowl of plain white rice. It is commonly ground into a flour and used to make rice cakes called tteok in over two hundred varieties. It is also cooked down into a congee (juk), or gruel (mieum) and mixed with other grains, meat, or seafood. Koreans also produce a number of rice wines, both in filtered and unfiltered versions. [ 8 ]


    Legumes have been significant crops in Korean history and cuisine according to earliest preserved legumes found in archaeological sites in Korea. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The excavation at Okbang site, Jinju, South Gyeongsang province indicates soybeans were cultivated as a food crop circa 1000–900 BCE. [ 11 ] They are made into tofu (dubu), while soybean sprouts are sauteed as a vegetable (kongnamul) and whole soybeans are seasoned and served as a side dish. They are also made into soy milk, which is used as the base for the noodle dish called kongguksu. A byproduct of soy milk production is okara (kongbiji), which is used to thicken stews and porridges. Soybeans may also be one of the beans in kongbap, which boil together with several types of beans and other grains, and they are also the primary ingredient in the production of fermented condiments collectively referred to as jang, such as soybean pastes, doenjang and cheonggukjang, a soy sauce called ganjang, chili pepper paste or gochujang and others. [ 12 ] [ 13 ]

    Mung beans are commonly used in Korean cuisine, where they are called nokdu (绿豆, literally "green bean"). Mung bean sprouts, called sukju namul, are often served as a side dish, blanched and sautéed with sesame oil, garlic, and salt. Ground mung beans are used to make a porridge called nokdujuk, which is eaten as a nutritional supplement and digestive aid, especially for ill patients. [ 14 ] A popular snack, bindaetteok (mung bean pancake) is made with ground mung beans and fresh mung bean sprouts. Starch extracted from ground mung beans is used to make transparent cellophane noodles (dangmyeon). The noodles are the main ingredients for japchae (a salad-like dish), and sundae (a blood sausage) or a subsidiary ingredient for soups and stews. [ 15 ] The starch can be also used to make jelly-like foods, such as nokdumuk and hwangpomuk. The muk have a bland flavor, so are served seasoned with soy sauce, sesame oil and crumbled seaweeds or other seasonings such as tangpyeongchae. [ 16 ]

    Cultivation of azuki beans dates back to ancient times according to an excavation from Odong-ri, Hoeryong, North Hamgyong Province, which is assumed to be that of Mumun period (approximately 1500-300 BCE). Azuki beans are generally eaten as patbap, which is a bowl of rice mixed with the beans, or as a filling and covering for tteok (rice cake) and breads. A porridge made with azuki beans, called patjuk, is commonly eaten during the winter season. On Dongjinal, a Korean traditional holiday which falls on December 22, Korean people eat donji patjuk, which contains saealsim (새알심), a ball made from glutinous rice flour. In old Korean tradition, patjuk is believed to have the power to drive evil spirits away. [ 17 ] [ 18 ]

    Condiments and seasoning

    Condiments are divided into fermented and nonfermented variants. Fermented condiments include ganjang, doenjang, gochujang and vinegars. Nonfermented condiments or spices include red pepper, black pepper, Chinese pepper, cordifolia, mustard, chinensis, garlic, onion, ginger, leek, and scallion (spring onion). [ 19 ]

    In antiquity, most meat in Korea was likely obtained through hunting and fishing. Ancient records indicate rearing of livestock began on a small scale during the Three Kingdoms period. Meat was consumed roasted or in soups or stews during this period. Those who lived closer to the oceans were able to complement their diet with more fish, while those who lived in the interior had a diet containing more meat. [ 20 ]

    Beef is the most prized of all meats, with the cattle holding an important cultural role in the Korean home. The cattle were valuable draught animals and were regarded more as servants than for consumption. They were also seen as equal to human servants, or in some cases, members of family. Cattle were also given their own holiday during the first 'cow' day of the lunar New Year. The importance of cattle does not suggest Koreans ate an abundance of beef, however, as the cattle were valued as beasts of burden and slaughtering one would create dire issues in farming the land. Pork and seafood were more likely consumed on a more regular basis, due to this issue. The Buddhist ruling class of the Goryeo period forbade the consumption of beef. The Mongols dispensed with the ban of beef during the 13th century, and they promoted the production of beef cattle. This increased production continued into the Joseon period, when the government encouraged both increased quantities and quality of beef. [ 21 ]

    Only in the latter part of the 20th century has beef become regular table fare. Beef is prepared in numerous ways today, including roasting, grilling (gui) or boiling in soups. Beef can also be dried into jerky, as with seafood, called respectively yukpo and eopo. [ 22 ]

    Chicken has played an important role as a protein in Korean history, evidenced by a number of myths. One myth tells of the birth of Kim Alji, founder of the Kim family of Gyeongju being announced by the cry of a white chicken. As the birth of a clan's founder is always announced by an animal with preternatural qualities, this myth speaks to the importance of chicken in Korean culture. Chicken is often served roasted or braised with vegetables or in soups. All parts of the chicken are used in Korean cuisine, including the gizzard, liver, and feet. Young chickens are braised with ginseng and other ingredients in medicinal soups eaten during the summer months to combat heat called samgyetang. The feet of the chicken, called dakbal (닭발), are often roasted and covered with hot and spicy gochujang-based sauce and served as an anju, or side dish, to accompany alcoholic beverages, especially soju. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]

    Pork has also been another important land-based protein for Korea. Records indicate pork has been a part of the Korean diet back to antiquity, similar to beef. [ 25 ]

    A number of foods have been avoided while eating pork, including Chinese bellflower (doraji, 도라지) and lotus root (yeonn ppuri, 연뿌리), as the combinations have been thought to cause diarrhea. All parts of the pig are used in Korean cuisine, including the head, intestines, liver, kidneys, etc. Koreans utilize these parts in a variety of cooking methods including steaming, stewing, boiling and smoking. [ 23 ]

    Fish and seafood

    Fish and shellfish have been a major part of Korean cuisine because of the oceans bordering the peninsula. Evidence from the 12th century illustrates commoners consumed a diet mostly of fish and shellfish, such as shrimp, clams, oysters, abalone, and loach, while sheep and hogs were reserved for the upper class. [ 26 ]

    Both fresh and saltwater fish are popular, and are served raw, grilled, broiled, dried or served in soups and stews. Common grilled fish include mackerel, hairtail, croaker and Pacific herring. Smaller fish, shrimp, squid, mollusks and countless other seafood can be salted and fermented as jeotgal. Fish can also be grilled either whole or in fillets as banchan. Fish is often dried naturally to prolong storing periods and enable shipping over long distances. Fish commonly dried include yellow corvina, anchovies (myeolchi) and croaker. [ 26 ] Dried anchovies, along with kelp, form the basis of common soup stocks. [ 27 ]

    Shellfish is widely eaten in all different types of preparation. They can be used to prepare broth, eaten raw with chogochujang, which is a mixture of gochujang and vinegar, or used as a popular ingredient in countless dishes. [ 28 ] Raw oysters and other seafood can be used in making kimchi to improve and vary the flavor. [ 29 ] Salted baby shrimp are used as a seasoning agent, known as saeujeot, for the preparation of some types of kimchi. Large shrimp are often grilled as daeha gui (대하구이) [ 30 ] or dried, mixed with vegetables and served with rice. Mollusks eaten in Korean cuisine include octopus, cuttlefish, and squid. [ 31 ]


    Korean cuisine uses a wide variety of vegetables, which are often served uncooked, either in salads or pickles, as well as cooked in various stews, stir-fried dishes, and other hot dishes. [ 32 ] Commonly used vegetables include Korean radish, Napa cabbage, cucumber, potato, sweet potato, spinach, bean sprouts, scallions, garlic, chili peppers, seaweed, zucchini, mushrooms and lotus root. Several types of wild greens, known collectively as chwinamul (such as Aster scaber), are a popular dish, and other wild vegetables such as bracken fern shoots (gosari) or Korean bellflower root (doraji) are also harvested and eaten in season. [ 33 ] Medicinal herbs, such as ginseng, reishi, wolfberry, Codonopsis pilosula, and Angelica sinensis, are often used as ingredients in cooking, as in samgyetang.

    Medicinal foods

    Medicinal food (boyangshik) is a wide variety of specialty foods prepared and eaten for medicinal purposes, especially during the hottest 30-day period in the lunar calendar, called sambok. Hot foods consumed are believed to restore ki, as well as sexual and physical stamina lost in the summer heat [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Commonly eaten boyangshik include: ginseng, chicken, dog, abalone, eel, carp, bone marrow, pig kidneys and black goat. These foods are popularly consumed by groups of men as a macho, backslapping activity. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ]

    Dog meat

    The consumption of dog meat in what is now Korea dates back to antiquity. Today, the primary dog breed raised for meat, the nureongi (누렁이), differs from those breeds raised for pets, which Koreans may keep in their homes. [ 41 ] Dog meat is usually eaten during the summer months, in either roasted form or prepared in soups. The most popular of these soups is gaejang-guk (also called bosintang), a spicy stew which is believed by consumers to balance the body's heat during the summer months followers of the custom claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one's gi, or vital energy of the body. A 19th century version of gaejang-guk explains the dish is prepared by boiling dog meat with scallions and chili powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots. While the dishes are still popular in Korea with a segment of the population, dog is nowhere near as widely consumed as beef, chicken, and pork. [ 34 ]

    Urban centers

    Major urban areas in the Midwest feature distinctive cuisines very different from those of the region's rural areas, and some larger cities have world-class restaurants.

    Barberton, Ohio

    Part of the greater Akron area, this small industrial city with a strong Central and Eastern European heritage has a culinary contribution called Barberton Chicken, created by Serbian immigrants, deep fried in lard, and usually accompanied by a hot rice dish, vinegar coleslaw and french fries.


    The ethnic mix of the people of Chicago has led to a distinctive cuisine of restaurant foods exclusive to the area, such as Italian beef, the Maxwell Street Polish, the Chicago-style hot dog, Chicago-style pizza, chicken Vesuvio and the jibarito, as well as a large number of steakhouses.

    Chicago also boasts many gourmet restaurants, as well as a wide variety of ethnic food stores and eateries, most notably Mexican, Polish, Italian, Greek, Indian/Pakistani and Asian, often clustered in ethnic neighborhoods. Many of these cuisines have evolved significantly in Chicago. For example, the Greek cheese dish saganaki was first flambéed at the table in Greektown. [9]

    The Midwest is sometimes thought to be behind the coasts in culinary trends, yet, perhaps ironically, Chicago is the country's leading center of cutting-edge molecular gastronomy, likely due to the influence of Grant Achatz. [10] [11]

    As a major rail hub, Chicago historically had access to a broad range of the country's foodstuffs, so even in the 19th century, Chicagoans could easily buy items like live oysters [12] and reasonably fresh shrimp. Chicago's oldest signature dish, shrimp de Jonghe, was invented around the turn of the 20th century. Today, flights into O'Hare Airport bring Chicago fresh food from all over the world.


    The Queen City is known for its namesake "Cincinnati chili," a Greek-inspired meat sauce served over spaghetti or hot dogs. Unlike chili con carne, Cincinnati-style chili is almost never eaten by itself and is instead consumed in "ways," or on cheese coneys, which are a regional variation on a chili dog

    Goetta, a meat-and-grain sausage or mush made from pork and oats, is unique to the Greater Cincinnati area and "every bit as much a Queen City icon" [13] : 244 as Cincinnati chili. It was inspired by the traditional porridge-like German peasant food stripgrutze but incorporates a higher proportion of meat-to-grain and is thicker, forming a sliceable loaf. Slices are typically fried like sausage patties and served for breakfast. [5] More than a million pounds of goetta are served in the Cincinnati area per year. [5]

    The city has a strong German heritage and a variety of German-oriented restaurants and menu items can be found in the area. Cincinnati's Oktoberfest Zinzinnati, an annual food and music celebration held each September, is the second-largest in the world. [14] Taste of Cincinnati, the longest running culinary arts festival in the United States, is held each year on Memorial Day weekend. In 2014, local chefs and food writers organized the first annual Cincinnati Food & Wine Classic, which drew chefs and artisan food producers from the region. [15] [16]

    The area was once a national center for pork processing and is often nicknamed Porkopolis, with many references to that heritage in menu-item names and food-event names [5] pigs are a "well-loved symbol of the city." [5]

    Pork packing in Cincinnati 1873


    Cleveland's many immigrant groups and heavily blue-collar demographic have long played an important role in defining the area's cuisine. Ethnically, Italian foods as well as several Eastern European cuisines, particularly those of Poland and Hungary, have become gastronomical staples in the Greater Cleveland area. Prominent examples of these include cavatelli, rigatoni, pizza, Chicken paprikash, stuffed cabbage, pierogi, and kielbasa all of which are widely popular in and around the city. [17] Local specialties, such as the pork-based dish City Chicken and the Polish Boy (a loaded sausage sandwich native to Cleveland), are dishes definitive of a cuisine that is based on hearty, inexpensive fare. Commercially, Hector Boiardi (aka Chef Boyardee) started his business in Cleveland's Little Italy, and Mr. Hero, a regional sandwich shop franchise, is based in the area. [17]

    Sweets specific to the Cleveland area include the coconut bar (similar in many respects to the Australian Lamington). [18] Coconut bars, which are found in many Jewish bakeries in the area, are small squares of cake that have been dipped in chocolate and rolled in coconut. [19] In Italian bakeries around the Cleveland area, a variation of the Cassata cake is widely popular. This local version is unlike those typically found elsewhere being that it is made with layers of sponge cake custard and strawberries, then frosted with whipped cream. In a celebrity-chef nod to this version, Mario Batali as 'the best Cassata cake in the USA.' [20]


    The Columbus, Ohio area is the home and birthplace of many well-known fast food chains, especially those known for hamburgers. Wendy's opened its first store in Columbus in 1969, and is now headquartered in nearby Dublin. America's oldest hamburger chain, White Castle, is based there. Besides burgers, Columbus is noted for the German Village, a neighborhood south of downtown where German cuisine such as sausages and kuchen are served. In recent years, local restaurants focused on organic, seasonal, and locally or regionally sourced food have become more prevalent, especially in the Short North area, between downtown and the OSU campus. Numerous Somali restaurants are also found in the city, particularly around Cleveland Avenue.

    Columbus is also the birthplace of the famed Marzetti Italian Restaurant, opened in 1896. Owner Teresa Marzetti is credited with creation of the beef-and-pasta casserole named after her brother-in-law, Johnny Marzetti. The restaurant's popular salad dressings became the foundation for the T. Marzetti Company, an international specialty foods manufacturer and distributor, headquartered in Columbus.


    Detroit specialties include Coney Island hot dogs, found at hundreds of unaffiliated "Coney Island" restaurants. Not to be confused with a chili dog, a coney is served with a ground beef sauce, chopped onions and mustard. The Coney Special has an additional ground beef topping. It is often served with French fries. Food writers Jane and Michael Stern call out Detroit as the only "place to start" in pinpointing "the top Coney Islands in the land." [13] : 233

    Detroit also has its own style of pizza, a thick-crusted, Sicilian cuisine-influenced, rectangular type called square pizza. Other Detroit foods include zip sauce, served on steaks the triple-decker Dinty Moore sandwich, corned beef layered with lettuce, tomato and Russian dressing and a Chinese-American dish called warr shu gai or almond boneless chicken.

    The Detroit area has many large groups of immigrants. A large Arabic-speaking population reside in and around the suburb of Dearborn, home to many Lebanese storefronts. Detroit also has a substantial number of Greek restaurateurs. Thus, numerous Mediterranean restaurants dot the region and typical foods such as gyros, hummus and falafel can be found in many run-of-the-mill grocery stores and restaurants.

    Polish food is also prominent in the region, including popular dishes such as pierogi, borscht, and pączki. Bakeries concentrated in the Polish enclave of Hamtramck, Michigan, within the city, are celebrated for their pączki, especially on Fat Tuesday.

    Chinese restaurants in the Detroit area serve Almond boneless chicken, [21] a regional Chinese-American dish consisting of battered fried boneless chicken breasts served sliced on a bed of lettuce with a gravy-like chicken flavored sauce and slivered almonds. [22]

    In nearby Ann Arbor the Chipati, a tossed salad, is served inside a freshly baked pita pocket with the "secret" Chipati sauce on the side. The Chipati's origination is claimed by both Pizza Bob's on S. State St. and by Pizza House on Church St.


    Indianapolis was settled predominantly by Americans of British descent and Irish and German immigrants, so much of the city's food draws upon these influences. Much of the food is considered to be "Classic American Cuisine". Later immigrants included many Jews, Poles, Eastern Europeans and Italians, all of whom influenced local food. Two of the city's most distinct dishes are the pork tenderloin sandwich and sugar cream pie.

    A fast-growing immigrant population from places such as Mexico and India is also beginning to influence the local food. The area offers many diverse, locally owned ethnic restaurants, as well as nationally and internationally renowned restaurants. Indy is also home to many local pubs.

    Kansas City

    Kansas City is an important barbecue and meat-processing center with a distinctive barbecue style. The Kansas City metropolitan area has more than 100 barbecue restaurants [ citation needed ] and proclaims itself to be the "world's barbecue capital." The Kansas City Barbeque Society spreads its influence across the nation through its barbecue-contest standards. The oldest continuously operating barbecue restaurant is Rosedale Barbecue near downtown Kansas City. Other popular barbecue restaurants are Gates Bar-B-Q, Oklahoma Joe's and Arthur Bryant's. Both Arthur Bryant's and Gates Bar-B-Q sell bottled versions of their barbecue sauces in restaurants and specialty stores in the surrounding areas.

    Mansfield, Ohio

    Mansfield is the home of two well-known food companies. Isaly Dairy Company (AKA Isaly's) was a chain of family-owned dairies and restaurants started by William Isaly in the early 1900s until the 1970s, famous for creating the Klondike Bar ice cream treat, popularized by the slogan "What would you do for a Klondike Bar?". Stewart's Restaurants is a chain of root beer stands started in Mansfield by Frank Stewart in 1924, famous for their Stewart's Fountain Classics line of premium beverages now sold worldwide.


    German immigrants settled Milwaukee. Sauerkraut, bratwurst, and beer as well as other traditional German favorites continue to be popular in homes as well as at Milwaukee's famous German restaurants. Milwaukee also offers a diverse selection of other ethnic restaurants.

    Served under various names, a favorite sandwich for Milwaukeeans and Wisconsinites consists of a brat (often butterflied to lay flat) on top of a hamburger in a kaiser roll.

    Frozen custard is a local favorite in the Cream City, with many competing stands throughout the area. [23]

    Cheese curds are another local favorite, and Wisconsinites also enjoy them fried.

    Also known as Brew City, [23] Milwaukee is home to many breweries and the traditional and nominal headquarters for national beer brands. [24] [25]

    Minneapolis and Saint Paul

    Minneapolis and Saint Paul offer a diverse array of cuisines influenced by their many immigrant groups, as well as those restaurant chefs who follow the trends of larger cities. While at-home fare varies broadly within various ethnic groups and their culture, historically, the overall majority of Minnesotans were of European ancestry, many with farming backgrounds and many home cooked meals still reflect this, with comfort food items such as hotdish, hearty soups and stews and meat and potatoes commonly being served. Many Minnesotans claim some Scandinavian heritage, and while iconic dishes such as lefse and lutefisk are quite commonly served at home as well as church potlucks and community get-togethers, few restaurants serve these items. Another popular item in Minnesota is wild rice which has been gathered in area lakes by Native Americans for centuries. In the fall, the Twin Cities share along with Green Bay, Wisconsin, the tradition of the neighborhood booyah, a cuisine and cultural event featuring a hodge-podge of ingredients in stews. One item of note, Minneapolis and Saint Paul pioneered the Jucy Lucy (or "Juicy Lucy"), a hamburger with a core of melted cheese.

    American restaurants in the Twin Cities supply a wide spectrum of choices and styles that range from small diners offering simple short order grill fare and the typical sports bars and decades old supper clubs to high-end steakhouses and eateries that serve new American cuisine using locally grown ingredients. Most types of American regional cuisine can be found at restaurants in the Twin Cities. Barbecue restaurants in the area tend to feature a combination of the various regional styles of this type of cooking.

    Germans comprise the majority of the state's ethnic heritage and one can find authentic German cuisine at the Glockenspiel in Saint Paul, the Gasthaus Bavarian Hunter in nearby Stillwater, and at the Black Forest Inn and the Gasthof zur Gemutlichkeit both found in Minneapolis. The latter restaurant is in Minneapolis' Northeast community which is also home to thriving Czech, Polish, Ukrainian and other Eastern European restaurants such as Jax Café, Kramarczuk's, Mayslack's and Nye's Polonaise lending this area an old world character and charm. The Twin Cities can also boast of authentic French, Irish, Italian and Russian restaurants. Spanish tapas restaurants exist, but are more trendy than homage. In the Twin Cities, pizzerias tend to be American rather than rustic Italian (although they too exist and offer inventive recipes.)

    Authentic Mexican and Tex-Mex restaurants are quite popular in the Twin Cities, as there are Hispanic neighborhoods in both Saint Paul and Minneapolis. Many entrepreneurs have taken authentic Mexican cuisine into the suburbs as well. Latin American purveyors are also pioneering their home cuisines from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru and the West Indies offering authentic churrasco and ceviche among their dining options.

    Asian cuisine was initially dominated by Chinese Cantonese immigrants that served Americanized offerings. In 1883 Woo Yee Sing and his younger brother, Woo Du Sing, opened the Canton Cafe in Minneapolis, the first Chinese restaurant in Minnesota. [26] [27] Authentic offerings began at the influential Nankin Cafe which opened in 1919, [28] and many new Chinese immigrants soon took this cuisine throughout the Twin Cities and to the suburbs. Authentic Chinese cuisine from the provinces of Hunan and Szechaun and from Beijing, Shanghai and Taiwan are relatively new. The cuisine of Japan has been present since the opening of the area's very first Japanese restaurant, Fuji Ya in 1959. Since then, sushi and teppanyaki restaurants have also become increasingly more common. In the 1970s the Twin Cities saw a large influx of Southeast Asian immigrants from Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The urban areas are now proliferated by Vietnamese phở noodle shops and Thai curry restaurants. Since 1976 Supenn Supatanskinkasem (now Harrison) has been cooking and serving Thai food through her Minnesota State Fair Booth, Siam Café, and Sawatdee chain of Thai restaurants. Thanks to her persistence and success, others have opened Thai restaurants and there are now more than 100 establishments throughout Minnesota offering the food of Thailand. [29] Cambodian cuisine has also flourished given the large Hmong population familiar with it. Korean restaurants are few, as possibly their dining style and flavors have not been as adopted into the American mainstream. In the Twin Cities suburbs, Oriental buffets are popular for offering different Asian cuisines together. Restaurants offering other cuisines of Asia including those from Afghanistan, India, Nepal and the Philippines are also fairly recent additions to the Twin Cities dining scene and have been well received. Local ingredients are often integrated into Asian offerings, for example Chinese steamed walleye and Nepalese curried bison.

    The Twin Cities are home to many restaurants that serve the cuisines of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. There are numerous Greek restaurants that range from fine dining to casual fast food shops that specialize in gyros. In both Minneapolis and Saint Paul, there exist long established Jewish cafes and delicatessens. Lebanese restaurants have also had a long time presence in both cities.

    Authentic offerings of Arab cuisine, as well as other Middle Eastern cuisines, exist in the Minneapolis/St. Paul Metropolitan area. Egyptian, Iranian (Persian), Kurdish, and Turkish restaurants can be found throughout the Twin Cities.

    Related cuisines from Northeast Africa can also be found throughout the Twin Cities metropolitan area. While restaurants that serve Ethiopian dishes have been in the Twin Cities for decades, more recent immigrants from Somalia have also opened a number of restaurants in Minnesota. [30] Somali cuisine consists of an exotic mixture of native Somali, Ethiopian, Yemeni, Indian, Persian, Turkish and Italian culinary influences. [31]

    In addition, West African immigrants have introduced their own unique cuisine in recent years. There is also a presence of Afro-Caribbean restaurants.

    The University of Minnesota has been a center for food research with inventions such as the Honeycrisp apple. The Minnesota State Fair offers a sampling of many cuisines each year and Twin Citians claim that the all-American Corn Dog and Pronto Pup made their very first appearances there. Additionally, many important agricultural conglomerates, including Cargill, General Mills/Pillsbury, and International Multifoods make their home in Minneapolis-Saint Paul. The Betty Crocker food brand (named after a non-existent housewife) was born there. Several national restaurant chains, such as Buca di Beppo, Famous Dave's and the now defunct Chi-Chi's started in the Twin Cities. Buffalo Wild Wings, Dairy Queen, KarmelKorn Shoppes, Old Country Buffet, Orange Julius and T.G.I. Friday's (a division of Carlson Companies) are also well known chains headquartered in the Twin Cities.


    Omaha has some unusual steakhouses such as the famous Gorat's, several of which are Sicilian in origin or adjacent to the Omaha Stockyards. Central European and Southern influences can be seen in the local popularity of carp and South 24th Street contains a multitude of Mexican restaurants. North Omaha also has its own barbecue style.

    Omaha is one of the places claiming to have invented the reuben sandwich, supposedly named for Reuben Kulakofsky, a grocer from the Dundee neighborhood.

    Bronco's, Godfather's Pizza, and the Garden Cafe are among the chain restaurants that originated in Omaha.

    Omaha also has a thriving local pizza scene, with popular restaurants including Zio's, La Casa and Valentino's. However, Big Fred's and Johnny Sortino's are the two that routinely vie for the title of the best pizza in town.

    St. Louis

    The large number of Irish and German immigrants who came to St. Louis beginning in the early nineteenth century contributed significantly to the shaping of local cuisine as confirmed by a variety of uses of beef, pork and chicken, often roasted or grilled, as well as a variety of desserts including rich cakes, stollens, fruit pies, doughnuts and cookies. Even a local form of fresh stick pretzel, called Gus's Pretzels, has been sold singly or by the bagful by street corner vendors.

    Mayfair salad dressing was invented at a St. Louis hotel of the same name, and is richer than Caesar salad dressing. St. Louis is also known for popularizing the ice cream cone and for inventing gooey butter cake (a rich, soft-centered coffee cake) and frozen custard. Iced tea is also rumored to have been invented at the World's Fair, as well as the hot dog.

    Although St. Louis is typically not included on the list of major styles of barbecue in the United States, it was recognized by Kingsford as "America’s Top Grilling City" in its second annual list of "Top 10 Grilling Cities." [32] A staple of grilling in St. Louis is the pork steak, which is sliced from the shoulder of the pig and often basted with or simmered in barbecue sauce during cooking. Other popular grilled items include crispy snoots, cut from the cheeks and nostrils of the pig bratwurst and Italian sausage, often referred to as "sah-zittsa," a localization of its Italian name, salsiccia. Maull's is a popular brand of barbecue sauce in the St. Louis area.

    Restaurants on The Hill reflect the lasting influence of the early twentieth century Milanese and Sicilian immigrant community. Two unique Italian-American style dishes include "toasted" ravioli, which is breaded and fried, and St. Louis-style pizza, which has a crisp, thin crust and is usually made with Provel cheese instead of traditional mozzarella cheese.

    A Poor boy sandwich is the traditional name in St. Louis for a submarine sandwich. A St. Paul sandwich is a St. Louis sandwich, available in Chinese-American restaurants. A Slinger is a diner and late night specialty consisting of eggs, hash browns and hamburger, topped with chili, cheese and onion.


    Pre-colonial cuisine


    Seafood in the United States originated with the Native Americans, who often ate cod, lemon sole, flounder, herring, halibut, sturgeon, smelt, drum on the East Coast, and olachen and salmon on the West Coast. Whale was hunted by Native Americans off the Northwest coast, especially by the Makah, and used for their meat and oil. [1] Seal and walrus were also eaten, in addition to eel from New York's Finger Lakes region. Catfish was also popular amongst native peoples, including the Modocs. Crustacean included shrimp, lobster, crayfish, and dungeness crabs in the Northwest and blue crabs in the East. Other shellfish include abalone and geoduck on the West Coast, while on the East Coast the surf clam, quahog, and the soft-shell clam. Oysters were eaten on both shores, as were mussels and periwinkles. [2]

    Cooking methods

    Early Native Americans utilized a number of cooking methods in early American Cuisine that have been blended with early European cooking methods to form the basis of American Cuisine. Grilling meats was common. Spit roasting over a pit fire was common as well. Vegetables, especially root vegetables were often cooked directly in the ashes of the fire. As early Native Americans lacked pottery that could be used directly over a fire, they developed a technique which has caused many anthropologists to call them "Stone Boilers". They would heat rocks directly in a fire and then add the rocks to a pot filled with water until it came to a boil so that it would cook the meat or vegetables in the boiling water. In what is now the Southwestern United States, they also created adobe ovens called hornos to bake items such as cornmeal bread. Other parts of America dug pit ovens these pits were also used to steam foods by adding heated rocks or embers and then seaweed or corn husks placed on top to steam fish and shellfish as well as vegetables potatoes would be added while still in skin and corn while in-husk, this would later be referred to as a clambake by the colonists. [3]

    Colonial period

    When the colonists came to Virginia, Massachusetts, or any of the other English colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America, their initial attempts at survival included planting crops familiar to them from back home in England. In the same way, they farmed animals for clothing and meat in a similar fashion. Through hardships and eventual establishment of trade with Britain, the West Indies and other regions, the colonists were able to establish themselves in the American colonies with a cuisine similar to their previous British cuisine. There were some exceptions to the diet, such as local vegetation and animals, but the colonists attempted to use these items in the same fashion as they had their equivalents or ignore them entirely if they could. The manner of cooking for the American colonists followed along the line of British cookery up until the Revolution. The British sentiment followed in the cookbooks brought to the New World as well. [4]

    In 1796, the first American cookbook was published. [5]

    There was a general disdain for French cookery, even with the French Huguenots in South Carolina and French-Canadians. One of the cookbooks that proliferated in the colonies was The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy (1747) by Hannah Glasse, who referred to "the blind folly of this age that would rather be imposed on by a French booby, than give encouragement to a good English cook!" Of the French recipes given in the text, she speaks out flagrantly against the dishes as she "… think[s] it an odd jumble of trash." [6] Reinforcing the anti-French sentiment was the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1764. This created a large anxiety against the French, which influenced the English to force many of the French to move, as in the expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia to Louisiana. The Acadians left a French influence in the diet of those settled in Louisiana, and among the Acadian Francophones who settled eastern Maine and parts of what is now northern Vermont at the same time they colonized New Brunswick. [7]

    Common ingredients

    The American colonial diet varied depending on the settled region in which someone lived. Local cuisine patterns had established by the mid-18th century. The New England colonies were extremely similar in their dietary habits to those that many of them had brought from England. A striking difference for the colonists in New England compared to other regions was seasonality. [8] While in the southern colonies, they could farm almost year-round, in the northern colonies, the growing seasons were very restricted. In addition, colonists' close proximity to the ocean gave them a bounty of fresh fish to add to their diet, especially in the northern colonies. Wheat, however, the grain used to bake bread back in England was almost impossible to grow, and imports of wheat were far from cost productive. [9] [ dubious – discuss ] Substitutes in cases such as this included cornmeal. The Johnnycake was a poor substitute to some for wheaten bread, but acceptance by both the northern and southern colonies seems evident. [10]

    As many of the New Englanders were originally from England, game hunting was useful when they immigrated to the New World. Many of the northern colonists depended upon their ability to hunt, or upon others from whom they could purchase game. Hunting was the preferred method of protein consumption (as opposed to animal husbandry, which required much more work to defend the kept animals against Native Americans or the French).

    Livestock and game

    Commonly hunted game included deer, bear, buffalo, and wild turkey. The larger muscles of the animals were roasted and served with currant sauce, while the other smaller portions went into soups, stews, sausages, pies, and pastries. [11] In addition to game, colonists' protein intake was supplemented by mutton. The Spanish in Florida originally introduced sheep to the New World, but this development never quite reached the North, and there they were introduced by the Dutch and English. The keeping of sheep was a result of the English non-practice of animal husbandry. [12] The animals provided wool when young and mutton upon maturity after wool production was no longer desirable. [13] The forage-based diet for sheep that prevailed in the Colonies produced a characteristically strong, gamy flavor and a tougher consistency, which required aging and slow cooking to tenderize. [14]

    Fats and oils

    A number of fats and oils made from animals served to cook much of the colonial foods. Many homes had a sack made of deerskin filled with bear oil for cooking, while solidified bear fat resembled shortening. Rendered pork fat made the most popular cooking medium, especially from the cooking of bacon. Pork fat was used more often in the southern colonies than the northern colonies as the Spanish introduced pigs earlier to the South. The colonists enjoyed butter in cooking as well, but it was rare prior to the American Revolution, as cattle were not yet plentiful. [15]

    Alcoholic drinks

    Prior to the Revolution, New Englanders consumed large quantities of rum and beer, as maritime trade provided them relatively easy access to the goods needed to produce these items. Rum was the distilled spirit of choice, as the main ingredient, molasses, was readily available from trade with the West Indies. Further into the interior, however, one would often find colonists consuming whiskey, as they did not have similar access to sugar cane. They did have ready access to corn and rye, which they used to produce their whiskey. [16] However, until the Revolution, many considered whiskey to be a coarse alcohol unfit for human consumption, as many believed that it caused the poor to become raucous and unkempt drunkards. [17] In addition to these alcohol-based products produced in America, imports were seen on merchant shelves, including wine and brandy. [18]

    Southern variations

    In comparison to the northern colonies, the Southern Colonies were quite diverse in their agricultural diet and did not have a central region of culture. The uplands and the lowlands made up the two main parts of the southern colonies. The slaves and poor of the south often ate a similar diet, which consisted of many of the indigenous New World crops. Salted or smoked pork often supplement the vegetable diet. Rural poor often ate squirrel, possum, rabbit and other woodland animals. Those on the "rice coast" often ate ample amounts of rice, while the grain for the rest of the southern poor and slaves was cornmeal used in breads and porridges. Wheat was not an option for most of those who lived in the southern colonies. [19]

    The diet of the uplands often included cabbage, string beans, and white potatoes, while most avoided sweet potatoes and peanuts at the time. Those who could grow or afford wheat often had biscuits as part of their breakfast, along with healthy portions of pork. Salted pork was a staple of any meal, as it was used in the preparations of vegetables for flavor, in addition to being eaten directly as a protein. [20]

    The lowlands, which included much of the Acadian French regions of Louisiana and the surrounding area, included a varied diet heavily influenced by Africans and Caribbeans, rather than just the French. As such, rice played a large part of the diet as it played a large part of the diets of the Africans and Caribbean. In addition, unlike the uplands, the lowlands subsistence of protein came mostly from coastal seafood and game meats. Much of the diet involved the use of peppers, as it still does today. [21] Although the English had an inherent disdain for French foodways, as well as many of the native foodstuff of the colonies, the French had no such disdain for the indigenous foodstuffs, but rather a vast appreciation for the native ingredients and dishes. [22]

    Post-colonial cuisine

    During the 18th and 19th centuries, Americans developed many new foods. Some, such as Rocky Mountain oysters, stayed regional some spread throughout the nation but with little international appeal, such as peanut butter (a core ingredient of the famous peanut butter and jelly sandwich) and some spread throughout the world, such as popcorn, Coca-Cola and its competitors, fried chicken, cornbread, unleavened muffins such as the poppyseed muffin, and brownies.

    Modern cuisine

    During the Progressive Era (1890s–1920s) food production and presentation became more industrialized. Major railroads featured upscale cuisine in their dining cars. [23] Restaurant chains emerged with standardized decor and menus, most famously the Fred Harvey restaurants along the route of the Sante Fe Railroad in the Southwest. [24]

    At the universities, nutritionists and home economists taught a new scientific approach to food. During World War I the Progressives' moral advice about food conservation was emphasized in large-scale state and federal programs designed to educate housewives. Large-scale foreign aid during and after the war brought American standards to Europe. [25]

    Newspapers and magazines ran recipe columns, aided by research from corporate kitchens, which were major food manufacturers like General Mills, Campbell's, and Kraft Foods. One characteristic of American cooking is the fusion of multiple ethnic or regional approaches into completely new cooking styles. For example, spaghetti is Italian, while hot dogs are German a popular meal, especially among young children, is spaghetti containing slices of hot dogs. [ citation needed ] Since the 1960s Asian cooking has played a particularly large role in American fusion cuisine. [26]

    New York City is home to a diverse and cosmopolitan demographic, and since the nineteenth century, the city's world class chefs created complicated dishes with rich ingredients like Lobster Newberg, waldorf salad, vichyssoise, eggs benedict, and the New York strip steak out of a need to entertain and impress consumers in expensive bygone restaurants like Delmonico's and still standing establishments like the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. [27] [28]

    Some dishes that are typically considered American have their origins in other countries. American cooks and chefs have substantially altered these dishes over the years, to the degree that the dishes now enjoyed around the world are considered to be American. Hot dogs and hamburgers are both based on traditional German dishes, but in their modern popular form they can be reasonably considered American dishes. [29]

    Pizza is based on the traditional Italian dish, brought by Italian immigrants to the United States, but varies highly in style based on the region of development since its arrival. For example, "Chicago" style has focus on a thicker, taller crust, whereas a "New York Slice" is known to have a much thinner crust which can be folded. These different types of pizza can be advertised throughout the country and are generally recognizable and well-known, with some restaurants going so far as to import New York City tap water from a thousand or more miles away to recreate the signature style in other regions. [30]

    Many companies in the American food industry developed new products requiring minimal preparation, such as frozen entrees. [31] Many of these recipes have become very popular. For example, the General Mills Betty Crocker's Cookbook, first published in 1950, was a popular book in American homes. [32] [33]

    A wave of celebrity chefs began with Julia Child and Graham Kerr in the 1970s, with many more following after the rise of cable channels like Food Network. By the beginning of the 21st century regional variations in consumption of meat began to reduce, as more meat was consumed overall. [34] Saying they eat too much protein, the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans asked men and teenage boys to increase their consumption of underconsumed foods such as vegetables. [35]

    New American

    During the 1980s, upscale restaurants introduced a mixing of cuisines that contain Americanized styles of cooking with foreign elements commonly referred as New American cuisine. [36] New American cuisine refers to a type of fusion cuisine which assimilates flavors from the melting pot of traditional American cooking techniques mixed with flavors from other cultures and sometimes molecular gastronomy components. [37] [38]


    Philadelphia's large immigrant population has contributed to a large mixture of tastes to mingle and develop. Many types of foods have been created in or near Philadelphia or have strong associations with the city. In the 20th century, Philadelphia's foods included the cheesesteak, stromboli, hoagie, soft pretzel, water ice and soda.

    The cheesesteak is a sandwich traditionally made with sliced beef and melted cheese on an Italian roll. In the 1930s, the phenomenon as a steak sandwich began when hot dog vendor brothers Pat Olivieri and Harry Olivieri put grilled beef on a hot dog bun and gave it to a taxi driver. [ dubious – discuss ] Later, after Pat and Harry had started selling the sandwich on Italian rolls, the cheesesteak was affixed in the local culture when one of their cooks put melted cheese on the sandwich.

    Originally, the cheese was melted in a separate container to accommodate their large clientele who followed kosher rules (thereby not mixing dairy and meat). Today, cheese choices in Philadelphia eateries are virtually limited to American, Provolone, or Cheez Whiz. The latter is especially popular in those places that prominently carry it.

    The hoagie is another sandwich that is said to have been invented in Philadelphia, undoubtedly of origin in Italian-American cuisine. It has been asserted that Italians working at the World War I era shipyard in Philadelphia, known as Hog Island where emergency shipping was produced for the war effort, introduced the sandwich, by putting various sliced meats, cheeses, and lettuce between two slices of Italian bread. This became known as the "Hog Island" sandwich hence, the "hoagie". [1]

    Declared the official sandwich of Philadelphia in 1992, the hoagie is a sandwich made of meat and cheese with lettuce, tomatoes, and onions on an Italian roll. [2]

    Another Italian roll sandwich popularized in Philadelphia by Italian immigrants is the roast pork Italian, or Italian roast pork sandwich, a variation of the Italian street food dish known as porchetta. The sandwich consists of sliced roast pork with broccoli rabe or spinach and provolone cheese. [3]

    Philadelphia Pepper Pot, a soup of tripe, meat, vegetables, is claimed to have been created during the American Revolutionary War and named after the home city of its creator. [4]

    Snapper soup, a thick brown turtle soup served with sherry, is a Philadelphia delicacy, generally found in area bars and seafood restaurants. In many places, it is served with oyster crackers (such as OTC Crackers, OTC being an abbreviation for "Original Trenton Cracker") and horseradish.

    The snack item commonly associated with Philadelphia, but not invented there, is the soft pretzel. The soft pretzel dates back to 7th-century France and was brought over to the Philadelphia area by the Pennsylvania Dutch. Pretzels were sold in Philadelphia by numerous vendors on street corners. [6] Federal Pretzel Baking Company defined the soft pretzel for most Philadelphians during the 1900s by first applying mass production and distribution to a distinctive baked flavored family recipe.

    Another snack associated with Philadelphia is Irish potato candy. The candies have a coconut cream inside (generally made from some blend of coconut, confectioner's sugar, vanilla, and cream or cream cheese) and are rolled in cinnamon on the outside, resulting in an appearance reminiscent of small potatoes. [7] [8] The treats are about the size of a large marble and are especially popular around St. Patrick's Day. [7]

    Oh Ryan's of Boothwyn, Pennsylvania, claims to be the largest distributor of Irish Potatoes, shipping about 80,000 pounds to major chains and smaller candy stores, mostly in the Philadelphia area. [9]

    Water ice, known as Italian ice in other Northeastern US cities, is similarly associated with Philadelphia, brought to Philadelphia by Italian immigrants. Water ice likely derives from semi-frozen desserts originating in Italy, specifically granita.

    The Philadelphia metropolitan area (including Delaware Valley, South Jersey, Southeastern Pennsylvania) is the only region of the United States to refer to the dessert as "water ice" in other areas, such as New York City, water ice is called "Italian ice". However, despite the overlap and near synonymity between the two terms, water ice has been described as a specific type of Italian ice originating in Philadelphia, or a "variation on the more broadly-accepted Italian ice." [10] Certain stands like South Philadelphia's "Pop's" or "Italiano's" became similar products later franchised into new markets like "Rita's Water Ice".

    As with New York City and Chicago, Philadelphia has its own regional variant of hot dog known as the Texas Tommy, originating right outside Philadelphia in Pottstown, Pennsylvania before spreading throughout the Delaware Valley region and South Jersey. The Texas Tommy hot dog is defined by its use of cheese (usually cheddar cheese) and bacon as toppings.

    Some variations of the Texas Tommy use other forms of cheese, replacing the cheddar with the Cheez-Whiz found on cheesesteaks. The bacon and cheese are often wrapped around the hot dog, and the hot dog may be cooked using a variety of methods, such as deep frying, barbecuing, or grilling. Condiments such as mustard, ketchup, or relish may be used in addition to the bacon and cheese. [11] [12] [13]

    Chili is also sometimes added to the Texas Tommy, making the dish resemble more closely a Texas Wiener or chili dog with bacon and cheese. [14]

    Although soda is not purely associated with Philadelphia, it was invented in Philadelphia, with brands that rose to popularity as Hires Root Beer, Franks Beverages' unique Black Cherry Wishniak or Vanilla Cream, and Levis Champ Cherry.

    In early Philadelphia history the city's eating scene was dominated by taverns. By 1752, Philadelphia had 120 licensed taverns and numerous illegal taverns. The taverns ranged for all types of people and class from illegal grog shops on the waterfront that sailors frequented to the upper class taverns that members of city government enjoyed.

    Taverns such as the London Coffee House, the Blue Anchor, Tun Tavern and John Biddle's Indian King were regular meeting places for the political and business leaders of the city. The City Tavern is a replica of a historic 18th-century building located at 138 South 2nd Street and is part of Independence National Historical Park. The tavern offers authentic 18th-century recipes, served in seven period dining rooms, three wine cellar rooms and an outdoor garden. [15] [16] [17]

    McGillin's Olde Ale House, located on Drury Street in Center City, is the oldest continuously operated tavern in the city, and has become a well-knownplace for celeb-spotting. [18]

    Popular restaurants during the early 19th century included the United States Hotel and Parkinson's on Chestnut Street and Joseph Head Mansion's House on Spruce Street. One of the most significant restaurateurs and caterers at this time was M. Latouche, an expert in French cuisine, whose restaurant offered expensive food and choice wine.

    Toward the end of the 19th century, the large number of Italian immigrants in South Philadelphia led to the creation of the Italian Market. The market, which runs along part of south 9th Street, includes numerous types of food vendors along with other shops, although today it is mostly made up of non-Italian merchants. [19]

    Another market, the Reading Terminal Market, opened in 1892. Created to replace the markets displaced by the construction of the Reading Terminal on Market Street in Center City, Reading Terminal Market has over 80 merchants and is a popular tourist attraction. In 1902, Joseph Horn and Frank Hardart opened the first automat in the U.S. at 818 Chestnut Street, now a retail store. The original Automat is now part of the Smithsonian Institution. [20]

    In the 1950s and 1960s, the restaurant scene was in decline. The city saw a large emigration into the suburbs, and fine dining could be found mainly in private clubs and dinner parties.

    But as the city started to rebound in the 1970s, Philadelphia saw a restaurant renaissance. For instance, in 1970 Georges Perrier and Peter Von Starck founded French restaurant Le Panetiere. After a year, the two split, with Von Starck taking the Panetiere name to a different location. Perrier opened Le Bec-Fin at 13th & Spruce Street, then later at 1523 Walnut Street, which quickly became one of Philadelphia's most renowned restaurants. Another popular example is H.A Winston & Co., which evolved into a chain of restaurants located throughout the region.

    The years following saw many new fine dining places open, including Four Seasons' Fountain Restaurant in 1983. [6] Along with the up-scale restaurants, numerous ethnic and fast-food restaurants opened throughout the city.

    The 1970s also saw the rise of street vendors. The vendors, building off the well-established tradition of chestnut and pretzel vendors, began selling numerous foods, especially hot dogs, cheesesteaks, and breakfast sandwiches. By taking up sidewalk space and possibly business, the vendors annoyed established stores which eventually led to numerous legal battles over ordinances which placed restrictions on vendors.

    The issue was surrounded by race and class overtones, but vendors have since become commonplace and even nationally renowned for serving quality food. [19] [21]

    A wide variety of eateries now thrive in Philadelphia. The city has a growing reputation for culinary excellence, and many of the city's chefs have been honored with nominations for James Beard Awards [22] [23]

    Prolific local restaurateurs like Stephen Starr's STARR Restaurants and Iron Chef Jose Garces's Garces Restaurant Group operate restaurants that coexist with small chef-owned BYOBs. Major dining locations include Rittenhouse Square, Old City, Chinatown, Manayunk, East Passyunk Avenue and Fishtown. [6]

    In September 2006, a smoking ban went into effect for Philadelphia bars and restaurants. The ban, which exempts private clubs, hotels, specialty smoking shops, and waiver-eligible bars that serve little food, had a troubled start and went unenforced until January 2007. [24]

    Just a month later Philadelphia City Council passed a ban on trans fat in restaurants, effective September 2, 2007. [25] [26] Other health reforms have been introduced by the Get Healthy Philly Initiative. [27]

      sauce—gooey, orange, dairy condiment carried by many street vendors. In general, Philadelphians often add cheese sauce to inexpensive food items, such as French fries and pretzels. The vast majority of "cheese sauce" served on Philadelphia foods is the nationally recognized brand, Cheez Whiz. —associated with the Pennsylvania Dutch, made by pouring batter into hot cooking oil in a circular pattern and deep frying the overlapping mass until golden-brown extremely popular in the Philadelphia area.
  • German butter cake—very rich type of pound cake with a buttery, pudding-like center, not to be confused with the traditional butter cake or the St. Louis version. Also called Philadelphia Butter Cake. —popular licorice pastille candy created in 1893. —Philadelphia-area snack brand, noted for potato chips and other snack foods —popular candy produced in Philadelphia since 1917 —although developed and mostly produced in Trenton (on the border between the Philadelphia and New York spheres of influence) and mostly associated with New Jersey culinary traditions, pork roll is widely available in the Philadelphia area and well-incorporated into Philadelphian cuisine. —usually served on an Italian roll and often with broccoli rabe instead of spinach and most traditionally with sharp provolone a staple of South Philadelphia cuisine. —processed meat loaf made of pork scraps and trimmings combined with cornmeal and flour, is a Pennsylvanian breakfast food. —in the early 19th century, Dr. Philip Syng Physick and John Hart of Philadelphia invented carbonated water in an attempt to simulate water from natural springs. In 1807, Philadelphian pharmacist Townsend Speakman sold fruit juice and carbonated water, inventing the first soft drink. In 1875, Charles Elmer Hires invented root beer by mixing sarsaparilla, sassafras, wild cherry, wintergreen, ginger, and alcohol. He sold it at his drug store in Philadelphia. [28] —also associated with the Pennsylvania Dutch, it is made of two round mound-shaped pieces of chocolate cake, or sometimes pumpkin or gingerbread cake, with a sweet, creamy filling or frosting sandwiched between them. [29] Also popular in New England.
  • Spiced wafers—type of cookie traditionally sold in the autumn —reported to have originated in 1950 in Essington, just outside Philadelphia. It is a type of turnover made with Italian bread dough filled with various kinds of cheese, Italian charcuterie or vegetables. Panzarotti is a trademark for a type of deep-fried stromboli, particularly associated with Philadelphia's South Jersey suburbs. —most well-known snack brand native to Philadelphia. Since 1914, the Tasty Baking Company has provided the region with its line of pre-packaged baked goods best-known varieties include Krimpets, cupcakes, Kandy Kakes (wafer-sized chocolate and peanut butter cakes), and Tasty Pies. —essentially a cheeseless pizza two-feet by three-feet in size, with extra oregano. Tomato pie is normally served cold or at room temperature. It is more often found in the Northeast section of Philadelphia and at bakeries in South Philadelphia with variations found in Trenton, New Jersey and other suburban localities. —grilled, split hot dog with bacon and cheese a common hot dog dish in Philadelphia. [30] —a version of Italian ice that is popular in Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley. It is sold to order at specific shops and pre-packaged in grocery stores. [31]
  • Beer was brewed by English colonial inhabitants of Philadelphia since the city's founding in 1682, and later by German immigrants that settled the city's countryside. Because of this, the city is strongly identified with both English-style beer (particularly porter, a variety that was virtually synonymous with Philadelphia during the American Revolutionary period) and German-style beer (such as lager), which eclipsed the English style near the end of the 19th century. [32]

    In the industry's heyday before Prohibition, more than 90 breweries operated in city limits, with another 100 located in the greater metropolitan area. [33] A neighborhood in the city is still called Brewerytown, owing to the concentration of breweries in the area during this time. The last of the city's most successful brewers, such as the Henry F. Ortlieb Brewing Company and the Christian Schmidt Brewing Company, shut down in the 1980s. [34]

    The beer most associated with Philadelphia is Yuengling lager, brewed in nearby Pottsville, Pennsylvania and often referred to as simply "Lager" by Philadelphians and people in the Delaware Valley and South Jersey.

    Recently, however, a number of highly regarded micro-breweries and brewpubs appeared in and around the city in the 1990s and 2000s, such as Victory, Yards and PBC, reviving the city's dormant brewing industry. (For more information, see Breweries in Philadelphia.) In 2011, Philadelphia was ranked as one of the 14 best beer cities in the world by Frommer's, [35] and the city's annual beer week is among its most popular food-centric civic events.

    Other notable Delaware Valley microbreweries and brewpubs include Iron Hill Breweries and the award-winning Sly Fox Brewery.

    The distillation of spirits in Philadelphia has a long history, but the industry has sat idle for several decades.

    One of the largest manufacturing complexes in the city, spanning 40 acres, was owned by Publicker Industries, which produced chemicals, industrial alcohols and spirits in South Philadelphia. Its Continental Distilling Company arm produced Old Hickory bourbon, Inver House Scotch and Skol vodka, among many other liquors, before the company abandoned the site in 1986.

    The oldest producer of cordials and liqueurs in the U.S., Charles Jacquin et Cie, remains in operation in the city's Kensington neighborhood the company is best known for its Pravda vodka, Jacquin's family of liqueurs and Original Bartenders Cocktails brand, well as its introduction of Chambord (sold to Brown-Forman in 2006), Creme Yvette, St-Germain and Domaine de Canton to the U.S. market.

    More recently, Philadelphia Distilling opened in 2005 in the city's Fishtown neighborhood it is the first craft distillery to open in Pennsylvania since before Prohibition, [36] and produces Bluecoat American Dry Gin, Vieux Carré Absinthe Supérieure, Penn 1681 vodka, XXX Shine corn whiskey and The Bay, a vodka seasoned with Chesapeake Bay seasoning.

    Watch the video: East Meets West In this Fusion Food Truck (October 2021).